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The impact of non-fatal workplace injuries and illnesses on mortality

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 11:30
Background

Little research has examined the relationship between non-fatal workplace injuries and illnesses, and long-term mortality.

Methods

We linked non-fatal injury cases reported to the New Mexico workers’ compensation system for 1994–2000 with Social Security Administration data on individual earnings and mortality through 2014. We then derived sex-specific Kaplan–Meier curves to show time to death for workers with lost-time injuries (n = 36,377) and comparison workers (n = 70,951). We fit multivariable Cox survival models to estimate the hazard ratio separately for male and female workers with lost-time injuries.

Results

The estimated hazard ratio for lost-time injuries is 1.24 for women and 1.21 for men. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were 1.15, 1.35 and 1.15, 1.27, respectively.

Conclusion

Lost-time occupational injuries are associated with a substantially elevated mortality hazard. This implies an important formerly unmeasured cost of these injuries and a further reason to focus on preventing them. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:XX–XX, © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Association between long work hours and poor self-reported general health among Latin American immigrant and native workers in the United States and Spain

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 11:20
Background

The relationship between hours worked per week and self-reported general health (SRGH) has not been assessed in Latin American immigrant and native workers across host countries.

Methods

Cross-sectional study of the association between long work hours (LWH) (i.e., >51 hr per week) and poor SRGH using data from 2,626 workers in the United States (immigrants = 10.4%) and 8,306 workers in Spain (immigrants = 4.1%).

Results

Both countries’ natives working >51 hr per week had increased odds of reporting poor SRGH compared to those working fewer hours (U.S.: OR = 1.59; 95%CI = 1.01–2.49; Spain: OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.71–2.75); when stratified by sex, increased odds also were observed among immigrant female workers in Spain (OR = 3.47; 95%CI = 1.15–10.5).

Conclusions

LWH were associated with differential health outcomes in populations of native and Latin American immigrant workers in the United States and Spain, which may reflect social or occupational inequalities in general or resulting from the 2008 financial crisis. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a beautician

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 11:20

A 52-year-old non-smoking beautician using a skincare device spraying steam and ozone (a “vapozone” facial steamer) was referred for progressive dyspnea and dry cough during working periods. Although spirometry was normal, she had decreased diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, bronchiolitis with air trapping on high-resolution CT scan and 60% lymphocytosis by bronchoalveolar lavage. Twenty-six antigens were tested and serum-specific precipitins were found mainly against Pseudomonas sp. and Mycobacterium mucogenicum. Cultures from her skincare device isolated Pseudomonas sp. Outcome was favorable with cessation of occupational exposure to the device, without any medication. This is the first report of a case of HP in a beautician due to steam contaminated by Pseudomonas sp. from a vapozone. HP, and not only asthma and contact dermatitis, should be suspected in beauticians with respiratory symptoms. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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FDNY and 9/11: Clinical services and health outcomes in World Trade Center-exposed firefighters and EMS workers from 2001 to 2016

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 11:15
Background

After the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks on September 11, 2001, the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) instituted a WTC medical monitoring and treatment program and established a data center to document health outcomes in the WTC-exposed workforce of ∼16,000 firefighters and EMS workers.

Methods

FDNY schedules routine monitoring exams every 12–18 months and physical and mental health treatment appointments, as required.

Results

FDNY research studies have consistently found that early arrival to work and/or prolonged work at the WTC-site increased the risks for adverse physical and mental health outcomes. To date, a substantial proportion has been diagnosed with obstructive airways disease, chronic rhinosinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease; a quarter has two or more of these conditions.

Conclusions

While much has been learned, the entire spectrum and trajectory of WTC-related disorders and their mechanisms of onset and persistence remain to be fully described. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Sex differences in asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease incidence among the World Trade Center Health Program general responder cohort

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/18/2016 - 11:10
Background

Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are two common conditions among the responders to the WTC attacks. This study examined whether the cumulative incidence rates of asthma and GERD differed by sex among 24,022 and 23,557 WTC responders, respectively.

Methods

Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the sex difference in the rate of onset of physician-diagnosed asthma or GERD, from 9/12/2001 through 12/31/2015.

Results

The cumulative incidence of asthma reached 23% for women and 17% for men by the end of 2015, and the cumulative incidence of GERD reached 38% for women and 45% for men. Comparing women to men, the hazard ratio was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 1.74) for asthma, and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.38) for GERD.

Conclusions

WTC general responders have a substantial burden of asthma and GERD, with higher incidence in women. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:XX–XX, © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Hospital workers bypass traditional occupational injury reporting systems when reporting patient and visitor perpetrated (type II) violence

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 15:08
Background

Under-reporting of type II (patient/visitor-on-worker) violence by workers has been attributed to a lack of essential event details needed to inform prevention strategies.

Methods

Mixed methods including surveys and focus groups were used to examine patterns of reporting type II violent events among ∼11,000 workers at six U.S. hospitals.

Results

Of the 2,098 workers who experienced a type II violent event, 75% indicated they reported. Reporting patterns were disparate including reports to managers, co-workers, security, and patients’ medical records—with only 9% reporting into occupational injury/safety reporting systems. Workers were unclear about when and where to report, and relied on their own “threshold” of when to report based on event circumstances.

Conclusions

Our findings contradict prior findings that workers significantly under-report violent events. Coordinated surveillance efforts across departments are needed to capture workers’ reports, including the use of a designated violence reporting system that is supported by reporting policies. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among female and male custodians

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 15:07
Background

The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among custodians is high. We sought to compare musculoskeletal symptoms between female and male custodians and to explore how task might affect this relationship.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was performed among 712 custodians who completed a survey assessing upper extremity, back, and lower extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and exposure to cleaning tasks. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations between gender, cleaning tasks, and musculoskeletal symptoms.

Results

Gender was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with musculoskeletal symptoms in χ2 tests and multivariate analyses. The prevalence ratio of symptoms among women was roughly 50% higher than men, regardless of the tasks that workers performed.

Conclusions

The prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms differed for female and male custodians and appeared to be consistent across a range of job tasks. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Characterizing emergency department patients who reported work-related injuries and illnesses

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/11/2016 - 11:40
Background

Per a Congressional directive and funding, this study describes worker and workplace characteristics of emergency department (ED) patients who reported their injury/illness to their employer. The study also responds to Congress's request to enumerate injured/ill self-employed workers and workers with chronic conditions.

Methods

We conducted a follow-back study on injured/ill workers, including self-employed, identified from a national ED surveillance system from June 2012 through December 2013.

Results

An estimated 3,357,000 (95%CI: 2,516,000–4,199,000) workers treated in EDs reported their injury/illness to their employer or were self-employed. Of those, 202,000 (95%CI: 133,000–272,000) had a chronic condition. Of all reporters, excluding self-employed, 77% indicated they received instructions as to whom to report.

Conclusion

The study did not identify underreporting issues and revealed that medical records data may not be appropriate for assessing underreporting. Additional research is needed to examine workplace characteristics that encourage injury and illness reporting. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:610–620, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Obesity indices are predictive of elevated C-reactive protein in long-haul truck drivers

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/11/2016 - 11:40
Background

Obesity rates in long-haul truck drivers have been shown to be significantly higher than the general population. We hypothesized that commercial drivers with the highest levels of general obesity and abdominal adiposity would have higher concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation.

Methods

Survey and anthropometric data were collected from 262 commercial drivers. Weight, circumference measures, and blood analysis for CRP (N = 115) were conducted and compared to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. CRP values were non-normally distributed and logarithmically transformed for statistical analyses.

Results

BMI, waist circumference, sagittal abdominal diameter, and CRP were significantly higher than in the general population. Anthropometric indices that included height (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and sagittal diameter-to-height ratio), were most predictive of CRP values.

Conclusions

Abdominal obesity is prevalent in commercial vehicle drivers and is an important indicator of the presence of inflammation in this population. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:665–675, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Hired farmworkers in the US: Demographics, work organisation, and services

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/11/2016 - 11:40
Objective

Farm work is labor-intensive, physically demanding, and incurs a high risk of injury. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of farmworkers at increased risk of adverse health outcomes to focus targeted interventions.

Methods

The National Agricultural Workers Survey for 2008–2012 was used to compare characteristics associated with adverse health and safety conditions among US-born and Mexican and Central American-born Latino and Indigenous, documented and undocumented farmworkers, separately for males and females.

Results

US-born farmworkers had more secure work, worked less onerous tasks, and earned more per hour than other categories of farmworkers. Undocumented Indigenous workers had more precarious work, worked more onerous tasks, and were more likely to do piece work, than undocumented Latino workers.

Discussion

We highlight disparities in modifiable occupational health risk factors across groups of farmworkers that are associated with increased risks of work-related injury and poor health. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:644–655, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Using emergency department surveillance data to assess occupational injury and illness reporting by workers

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/11/2016 - 11:40
Objective

Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) share detailed methodologies from conducting two follow-back studies initiated in 2010 that were designed to assess whether workers reported their injuries and illnesses to their employers and to identify worker incentives and disincentives for reporting work-related injuries to employers.

Methodology

Study respondents were sampled from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work), an emergency department-based surveillance system. Telephone interviews were used to collect information directly from workers.

Outcomes

Among persons treated in emergency departments who could be identified as working at the time of injury or illness, most reported their injury or illness to their employer. Our studies did not assess if these reported injuries and illnesses were recorded on the Occupational Safety and Health logs.

Discussion

Our approach suggests that emergency department-based surveillance data are limited in their utility to investigate underreporting among workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:600–609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Reported work-related injuries and illnesses among Hispanic workers: Results from an emergency department surveillance system follow-back survey

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/11/2016 - 11:40
Background

Research suggests Hispanic workers underreport injuries/illnesses to their employer.

Methods

The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—occupational supplement was used to conduct a follow-back study of workers treated in emergency departments (EDs) from June 2012 through December 2013.

Results

An estimated 448,000 (95%CI 230,000–665,000) Hispanic workers treated in EDs for a work-related injury or illness were represented by 362 completed interviews. Of these, an estimated 443,000 (95%CI 228,000–657,000) workers reported the injury or illness to their employer or were self-employed. The majority had not heard of workers’ compensation. Only 10% expected workers’ compensation to cover their medical payment while 62% expected payment to be covered by their employer.

Conclusion

We characterized our respondent workforce who reported their injury or illness. We determined that NEISS-Work data are not the most appropriate source to capture underreporting of work-related injuries and illnesses to employers among Hispanic workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:621–629, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Process evaluation of two participatory approaches: Implementing total worker health® interventions in a correctional workforce

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Tue, 07/05/2016 - 07:26
Background

Correctional Officers (COs) have among the highest injury rates and poorest health of all the public safety occupations. The HITEC-2 (Health Improvement Through Employee Control-2) study uses Participatory Action Research (PAR) to design and implement interventions to improve health and safety of COs.

Method

HITEC-2 compared two different types of participatory program, a CO-only “Design Team” (DT) and “Kaizen Event Teams” (KET) of COs and supervisors, to determine differences in implementation process and outcomes. The Program Evaluation Rating Sheet (PERS) was developed to document and evaluate program implementation.

Results

Both programs yielded successful and unsuccessful interventions, dependent upon team-, facility-, organizational, state-, facilitator-, and intervention-level factors.

Conclusions

PAR in corrections, and possibly other sectors, depends upon factors including participation, leadership, continuity and timing, resilience, and financial circumstances. The new PERS instrument may be useful in other sectors to assist in assessing intervention success. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Transient risk factors for acute occupational hand injuries among metal manufacturing workers: A case-crossover study in southern China

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/04/2016 - 09:10
Background

Acute occupational hand injuries are a common occurrence in China's metal manufacturing industries. This study aimed to explore the transient risk factors for acute occupational hand injuries among metal manufacturing workers.

Methods

A case-crossover study was conducted from October 2013 through December 2013 in Zhongshan city, southern China. Face-to-face interviews were used to collect information on the occurrence of 12 transient risk factors during the “hazard” period (a 60-min period prior to occupational hand injury) and a “control” period (the week before the injury).

Results

One hundred ninety-four qualified acute occupational hand injury cases (139 male, 55 female) were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 35.5 (standard deviation [SD] 10.4) years. The most common (64.9%) type of work was punching, and the most common injures were crushes and fractures (28.8 and 23.7%, respectively). Of these cases, 62.9% were regarded as severe or major. Among the 12 transient risk factors, 11 ones were significantly associated with acute occupational hand injuries occurring during the hazard period: “replacing sharp knives” (IRR = 14.38, 95%CI 11.43–18.08), “using malfunctioning machinery” (IRR = 30.59, 95%CI 17.84–52.48), “using different tools” (IRR = 10.96, 95%CI 4.77–25.17), “using different machines” (IRR = 5.20, 95%CI 2.25–12.00), “performing unusual work tasks” (IRR = 24.38, 95%CI 14.11–42.15), “working overtime” (IRR = 13.40, 95%CI 7.70–23.29), “performing a task with a different method” (IRR = 56.41, 95%CI 23.61–134.81), “being in a bad mood” (IRR = 108.11, 95%CI 55.10–211.11), “feeling ill” (RR = 12.27, 95%CI 4.95–30.43), “rushing” (IRR = 5.16, 95%CI 2.49–10.70), and “not wearing gloves” (IRR = 1.63, 95%CI 1.23–2.15).

Conclusions

Our study suggested that multiple transient risk factors were responsible for the acute occupational hand injuries in China's metal manufacturing industries. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 07/04/2016 - 09:06
Background

Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain.

Methods

Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria.

Results

Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06–1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00–1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08–1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00–1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09–1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine.

Conclusions

Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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Mortality of lead smelter workers: A follow-up study with exposure assessment

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Tue, 06/28/2016 - 11:30
Background

Lead exposure has been linked to impaired renal function and kidney failure. High lead exposures have been associated with increased mortality from certain cancers, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

Methods

We extended vital status follow-up on a cohort of 1,990 lead smelter workers by 25 years and computed standardized mortality ratios and rate ratios (RR) stratified by cumulative lead exposure.

Results

The update added 13,823 person-years at risk and 721 deaths. Increased risk of mortality was observed for the a priori outcomes of lung cancer, cardiovascular disease (including cerebrovascular disease), chronic kidney disease, and ALS. However, of these outcomes, only cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and chronic kidney diseases were associated with a positive exposure-response in RR analyses.

Conclusions

This study reaffirms the association of lead exposure with cardiovascular and kidney diseases; however, increased mortality observed for certain cancers is not likely to be due to lead exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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Effect of monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide, on the striatal dopaminergic system in a mouse model of Parkinsons disease

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Our earlier study had shown that low concentrations of monocrotophos (MCP) elicited dopaminergic features of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In the present study, the effect of low doses of MCP on the striatal dopaminergic neurons was investigated using the mouse model system. MCP was initially screened for its ability to cause any neurobehavioral deficits and alterations in the dopaminergic system in Swiss albino mice, aged 8 weeks and weighing 25–30 g, with repeated doses at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day for 7 days and 30 days. Mice were treated with four intraperitoneal injections for every 2 h with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) at the dosage of 14 mg/kg b.w. MCP was administered to these mice at the above-mentioned doses for 7 days. Mice administered with MCP alone revealed a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the dopamine (DA) content at both 7 and 30 days and showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in neurobehavioral deficits. Interestingly, when MCP was administered for 7 days to MPTP-treated mice, further significant decrease in both DA content and increase in neurobehavioral deficits were apparent. The extent of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation were markedly increased, while the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the treated mice as compared to the control. Significant histopathological alterations and a marked reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were evident in striatum of mice treated with higher doses of MCP. These changes were comparable to that seen in mice treated with MPTP and post-administered lower doses of MCP. Our findings suggest that MCP per se has the propensity to induce pathological changes in the dopaminergic neurons as well as augment the degeneration in a compromised nigrostriatal system such as that in PD.

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Organellar proteome analyses of ricin toxin-treated HeLa cells

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Apoptosis triggered by ricin toxin (RT) has previously been associated with certain cellular organellar compartments, but the diversity in the composition of the organellar proteins remains unclear. Here, we applied a shotgun proteomics strategy to examine the differential expression of proteins in the mitochondria, nuclei, and cytoplasm of HeLa cells treated and not treated with RT. Data were combined with a global bioinformatics analysis and experimental confirmations. A total of 3107 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics predictors (Proteome Analyst, WoLF PSORT, TargetP, MitoPred, Nucleo, MultiLoc, and k-nearest neighbor) and a Bayesian model that integrated these predictors were used to predict the locations of 1349 distinct organellar proteins. Our data indicate that the Bayesian model was more efficient than the individual implementation of these predictors. Additionally, a Biomolecular Interaction Network (BIN) analysis was used to identify 149 BIN subnetworks. Our experimental confirmations indicate that certain apoptosis-related proteins (e.g. cytochrome c, enolase, lamin B, Bax, and Drp1) were found to be translocated and had variable expression levels. These results provide new insights for the systematic understanding of RT-induced apoptosis responses.

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Ameliorative effect of vitamin E to mouse dams and their pups following exposure of mothers to chlorpyrifos during gestation and lactation periods

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Pesticides are omnipresent in environment, water, fruits, and vegetables and are considered as risk factors for human health. Consumers are mainly exposed to pesticides through diet, and the main question to be answered concerns the impact of such exposure on health. In this study, we developed a mouse model to mimic consumer exposure. During gestation and lactation periods, the experimental mouse dams (M) received one of the following treatments: (a) diet-free of pesticides; (b) diet enriched with chlorpyrifos (CPF; 44.0 μg kg–1); c) diet + oral vitamin E (vit. E; α-tocopherol; 200 mg/kg/mouse); and (d) diet enriched with CPF (44.0 μg/kg + oral vit. E (200 mg/kg/mouse). At weaning, pups (P) and dams were killed, and organs as well as blood samples were collected. Compared with control results, CPF induced alteration of measured parameters (e.g. organ weight, alkaline phosphatase, urea, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and cholinesterase) either in mouse dams or in their offspring. Also, CPF induced histological impairment in kidney, liver, and ovary. Administration of vit. E in conjunction with CPF clearly alleviated deviation of these parameters than those of control ones. In conclusion, a dietary exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low dose of CPF led to significant changes in the mother but also in the weaned animals that have not been directly exposed to this pesticide. These biological and histological modifications could be reversed by an oral supplementation of vit. E.

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The effect of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant status of brain in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient aged rats

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Sulfite, commonly used as a preservative in foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals, is a very reactive and potentially toxic molecule which is detoxified by sulfite oxidase (SOX). Changes induced by aging may be exacerbated by exogenous chemicals like sulfite. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingested sulfite on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and brain antioxidant statuses by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Brain lipid oxidation status was also determined via thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in normal- and SOX-deficient aged rats. Rats do not mimic the sulfite responses seen in humans because of their relatively high SOX activity level. Therefore this study used SOX-deficient rats since they are more appropriate models for studying sulfite toxicity. Forty male Wistar rats aged 24 months were randomly assigned to four groups: control (C), sulfite (S), SOX-deficient (D) and SOX-deficient + sulfite (DS). SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats with low molybdenum (Mo) diet and adding 200 ppm tungsten (W) to their drinking water. Sulfite in the form of sodium metabisulfite (25 mg kg–1 day–1) was given by gavage. Treatment continued for 6 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, flash VEPs were recorded. Hepatic SOX activity was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. SOX-deficient rats had an approximately 10-fold decrease in hepatic SOX activity compared with the normal rats. The activity of SOX in deficient rats was thus in the range of humans. There was no significant difference between control and treated groups in either latence or amplitude of VEP components. Brain SOD, CAT, and GPx activities and brain TBARS levels were similar in all experimental groups compared with the control group. Our results indicate that exogenous administration of sulfite does not affect VEP components and the antioxidant/oxidant status of aged rat brains.

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