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Biomonitoring of heavy metals using bottom fish and crab as bioindicator species, the Arvand River

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

The main aim of this study was to biomonitor mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the Arvand River using Heteropnestis fossilis and Parasesarma persicum. Comparison of heavy metals among the stations indicated that the concentrations of Hg, As, Cd, Cu and Pb in sediment samples were apparently different among the stations. The results of linear regression analyses showed that there were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between Hg, As and Pb elements in sediment and hepatopancreas of P. persicum and between As in sediment and liver of H. fossilis. These findings showed that P. persicum could be considered as a biomonitor of Hg, As and Pb and H. fossilis as a biomonitor of As contamination in sediment of the Arvand River.

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Determining mercury levels in anchovy and in individuals with different fish consumption habits, together with their neurological effects

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

An increase in enviromental pollution may lead to mercury toxicity of fish origin due to the accumulative nature of methylmercury in fish. The main sources of human exposure to organic mercury compounds are contaminated fish and other seafoods. This descriptive study was planned to determine mercury levels in anchovy and in hair samples from individuals with different fish consumption habits, and to evaluate those individuals in terms of toxic effects. For that purpose, we analyzed 100 anchovies from the Black Sea and 100 anchovies from the Sea of Marmara, and assessed 25 wholesale workers in fish markets and 25 cleaning firm employees from both Ankara and Istanbul. Mercury levels in samples were measured using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Participants were examined neurologically and mini mental state examination was applied to evaluate their cognitive functions. Mercury levels in fish were found to be below the national and international permitted levels. There was no statistically significant relation between mercury levels and the sea from which fish were caught. Hair mercury levels for all participants were within permitted ranges. However, hair mercury levels in both cities increased significantly with amount and frequency of fish consumption. A significant correlation was determined at correlation analysis between levels of fish consumption and hair mercury levels in the fishmongers and in the entire group (r = 0.32, p = 0.025; r = 0.23, p = 0.023, respectively). Neurological examination results were normal, except for a decrease in deep tendon reflexes in some participants in both cities. There was no correlation between Standardized Mini Mental State Examination results and hair mercury levels. We conclude that establishing a monitoring system for mercury levels in fish and humans will be useful in terms of evaluating potential neurotoxic effects.

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Methanolic extract of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz flowers ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatic fibrosis in rats

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation, is the common cause of chronic liver failure and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rat model. Hepatic fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by CCl4 administration (150 μl/100 g rat weight, oral) twice a week for 10 weeks. In preventive model, administration of daily doses of methanolic extract of W. fruticosa (MEWF) at two different doses (100 mg/kg, body weight (b.w.) and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was started 1 week before the onset of CCl4 administration and continued for 10 weeks. In curative model, MEWF at 100 and 200 mg/kg were given for last 2 weeks after the establishment of fibrosis. MEWF at a dose of 200 mg/kg was able to exert a more pronounced effect as evidenced histologically by significant reduction in fibrotic septa formation in liver tissue, immunohistochemically by abridged expression of collagen III, and also biochemically by serum and tissue antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation, and hydroxyproline level. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of confertin, quercetin methyl ether, ellagic acid, and stigmasterol in MEWF, which could be responsible for its antifibrotic activity. These results indicate the effective protection exerted by MEWF against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner.

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Protective effect of crocin against apoptosis induced by subchronic exposure of the rat vascular system to diazinon

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Research has suggested that natural antioxidant, crocin, an active ingredient of saffron, may protect against diazinon (DZN)-induced toxicity. Although increased production of lipid peroxidation by DZN in rat aorta has been shown previously, the effects of DZN on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in vascular system have not been evaluated. In this study, the effect of crocin on DZN-induced apoptosis in rat vascular system was investigated. The rats were divided into 7 groups: corn oil (control), DZN (15 mg/kg/day, gavage), crocin (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) + DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg, i.p., 3 days a week) + DZN, and crocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.). The treatments were continued for 4 weeks. Levels of apoptotic (Bax, caspase 3, and caspase 9) and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl2) were analyzed by Western blotting. Transcript levels of Bax and Bcl2 genes were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results showed DZN-induced apoptosis by activation of caspase 9 and caspase 3 and by increasing the Bax/Bcl2 ratio (both protein and messenger RNA levels). Crocin and vitamin E inhibited apoptosis induced by DZN. In summary, subchronic exposure to DZN induced caspase-mediated apoptosis, and crocin reduced the toxic effects of DZN by inhibiting apoptosis in aortic tissue.

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The effect of benzo[{alpha}]pyrene on expression and signaling cross talk of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and NFATc1 in mouse lung tissue

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06
Objective:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent environmental pollutants. Benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P) is the major compound of PAHs that acts by activating aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in cells. B[α]P is a known carcinogen and an immunotoxicant; however, its role with regard to nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) pathway is unclear. AhR and NFAT signaling pathways have common roles in pathological functions in immunotoxicity and lung cancer. In this study, the effect of AhR activation on expression and signaling cross talk of AhR and NFATc1 pathways in mouse lung tissue has been investigated.

Methods:

Swiss albino mice were randomly allocated to five groups and administered with cyclosporin A (CsA) and B[α]P for seven constitutive days. Animals were then killed, and lung tissues were obtained after washing the whole blood. Paraffin-embedded blocks were prepared, and 5 µm sections were cut for histopathological and immunohistochemical assessments. The results were scored by observer and digitally analyzed using ImageJ software.

Results:

Our data showed that CsA administration resulted in a significant reduction of AhR expression. This effect was partly blocked in mice coadministrated with B[α]P and CsA. NFATc1 expression was also reduced in CsA-treated animals. Furthermore, CsA inhibited the pathological effects of B[α]P in mouse lung tissue.

Conclusion:

AhR expression is dependent on NFATc1 activation, and NFATc1 inhibition remarkably decreases AhR expression. However, it seems that total expression of NFATc1 is not dependent on AhR expression or activation. Moreover, CsA can prevent B[α]P-induced lung tissue damage, and it remarkably decreases NFATc1 expression. The results from this study point toward the molecular interactions of AhR and NFATc1 activation in lung tissue and the benefit of CsA treatment in B[α]P-induced lung damage.

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Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of Rhododendron arboreum bark

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Rhododendron arboreum Smith. (Ericaceae), an evergreen small tree, is one of the 1000 species that belongs to genus Rhododendron distributed worldwide. In folk medicine, as various parts of this plant exhibit medicinal properties, it is used in the treatment of different ailments.

The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract of R. arboreum bark, followed by activity-guided fractionation of n-hexane, n-butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions.

The ethyl acetate fraction (200 mg/kg i.p.) showed the maximum analgesic effect (82%) in acetic acid-induced writhing, followed, to a less extent, by crude extract and chloroform fraction both at a dose of 200 mg/kg i.p. (65.09% and 67.89%, respectively). In carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema, the crude extract and its related fractions displayed in a dose-dependent manner (50–200 mg/kg i.p.) an anti-inflammatory activity for all time-courses (1–5 hrs). For the active extract/fractions (200 mg/kg i.p.), the maximum effect was observed 5 h after carrageenan injection. These evidences were also supported by in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory properties. In conclusion, R. arboreum crude methanolic extract and its fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. For these reasons, this plant could be a promising source of new compounds for the management of pain and inflammatory diseases.

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Effects of T-2 mycotoxin on in vitro development and chromatin status of mouse embryos in preimplantation stages

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin produced by phytopathogenic fungi of the Fusarium genus and has many well-studied deleterious effects on mammalian cells and reproductive tract. Despite the wide scale studies, the effects on preimplantation stage embryos are lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of T-2 on the cleavage stage of mouse embryos with regard to development to blastocysts and nuclear chromatin status.

Six-weeks-old BDF1 female mice were superovulated and placed together overnight with mature males. Zygotes were flushed 20 h after human chorionic gonadotropin injection and divided randomly into treated (supplemented with 0.5, 0.75, and 1 ng/ml T-2) and nontreated (control) groups. Embryos were cultured in vitro for 96 h. Developmental stage was evaluated in the 72nd- and 96th-h for assessment of development dynamics. At the end of culture period, blastocysts from treated and control groups with normal morphology were selected for nuclear chromatin analysis. Blastocysts were categorized (grade A, B, and C) depending on the proportion of blasomeres with micronuclei and/or lobulated nuclei.

Our data show significant decrease in the proportions of blastocysts in the 0.75 and 1 ng/ml toxin-supplemented groups compared with the control group. Blastocyst rate did not differ in embryos treated with 0.5 ng/ml T-2 but 24 h delay was found in blastocoel formation in all the treated groups. Only grade A (21.1%) and B (78.9%) blastocysts were found in low-toxin-contaminated group similar to the control ones (50–50%). Grade C embryos appeared in the 0.75 ng/ml (10%) treated group and the rate increased significantly (33.3%) in the highest contaminated group.

T-2 mycotoxin has a harmful effect on early embryo development which results in decreased blastocyst proportion, delayed blastulation, and increased rate of chromatin damage.

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Protective role of Nigella sativa oil against reproductive toxicity, hormonal alterations, and oxidative damage induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

This study is aimed at elucidating the possible protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) in alleviating the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on reproductive performance in male rats. Animals were orally administered with NSO (1 ml/kg/day), CPF (20 mg/kg/day), and NSO + CPF every day for 4 weeks. Results showed that CPF decreased spermatid number, sperm count, daily sperm production, and sperm motility while increased dead sperm and abnormal sperm compared with the control. Also the levels of testosterone, thyroxine levels, steroidogenic enzyme 17-ketosteroid reductase, body weight, food intake, and relative weight of reproductive organs were decreased. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased, while glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes were decreased in plasma and testes of rats treated with CPF. Histopathological examination of testes showed a decrease in the number of seminiferous tubules, form shrinkage, enlargement of the connective tissue and gametogenic changes in germ cells of rats treated with CPF. NSO alone increased testosterone, semen characteristics, GSH, and antioxidant enzymes and decreased the levels of free radicals. Furthermore, the presence of NSO with CPF alleviates its toxic effects. Our results indicated that NSO can improve semen picture and moderate CPF-induced reproductive toxicity.

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Quercetin ameliorates atrazine-induced changes in the testicular function of rats

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

The protective effect of quercetin (QT) on atrazine (ATZ)-induced testicular damage in rats was investigated. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 220–250 g) divided into four groups with six animals in each group were given ATZ (120 mg kg–1; 1/16 of the median lethal dose for an oral dose) and/or QT (10 mg kg–1) daily via gavage for 16 days. By the end of day 16, rats given ATZ alone had significantly lower sperm counts, daily spermatozoa production, and sperm motility and significantly higher abnormal sperm numbers than the untreated control rats. The rats given ATZ alone also had significantly decreased 3β-hydroxtsteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and 17β-HSD activities than the control rats. Lactate dehydrogenase activity and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased, whereas superoxide dismutase activity decreased but glutathione levels remain unaffected after ATZ exposure. These changes were reversed toward control values in the QT + ATZ-treated animals, though the sperm motility was 28% below the control levels but was still higher than in the ATZ-treated rats. The results indicate that QT might improve testicular function of rats exposed to ATZ, but its protective effect on sperm motility might be partial.

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The regulatory role of nickel on H3K27 demethylase JMJD3 in kidney cancer cells

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Nickel compounds are an important class of environmental pollutants and carcinogens. Chronic exposure to nickel compounds has been connected with increased risks of numerous cancers, including lung and kidney cancers. But the precise mechanism by which nickel compounds exert their carcinogenic properties is not completely understood. In this study, kidney cancer cells namely human embryonic kidney 293-containing SV40 large T-antigen (HEK293T) and 786-0 were incubated with various concentrations of nickel chloride for 24 h before analysing the expression of three histone H3K27 methylation-modifying enzymes and H3K27me3 using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Our results showed that incubation of nickel chloride upregulated the expression of H3K27me3 demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3) in kidney cancer cells, which was accompanied by the reduction in the protein level of H3K27me3. Enhanced demethylation of H3K27me3 may represent a novel mechanism underlying the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds.

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Effects of prenatal exposure to single-wall carbon nanotubes on reproductive performance and neurodevelopment in mice

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Carbon nanotubes with extraordinary properties may become a novel drug and gene delivery tool in nanomedicine; however, insufficient information is available regarding their biosafety. Therefore, this work was performed to study the effect of prenatal exposure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on reproductive and neurobehavioral endpoints in mice. Thirty pregnant female mice were assigned to three groups (n = 10 for each group). The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 or 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of SWCNTs suspended in 1 ml of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) on gestational days 0 and 3. The control group was injected i.p. with an equal volume of PBS. The neurobehavioral ontogeny of pups was evaluated using a modified Fox battery. A decrease in litter size on postnatal day 2 was observed in the group treated with 10 mg/kg b.w. of SWCNTs whereas no significant differences between groups were observed in any other parameters. The behavioral development of pups did not show significant differences during growth except for the surface righting reflex, which showed significant delay compared to control in the group treated with 1 mg/kg b.w. SWCNTs. Moreover, exposed offspring (10 mg/kg b.w. SWCNTs) displayed enhanced anxiety in the elevated plus maze; however, other ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open field test) did not show behavioral changes in the experimental groups. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated small changes in offspring sensory and motor development following exposure to SWCNTs and support the idea that SWCNT risk assessment merits further investigation.

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Mercury contamination in some marine biota species from Khuzestan shore, Persian Gulf

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

In this study, concentrations of mercury (Hg) were analyzed in some marine biota species (fish, shrimp, and crab) from Khuzestan shore, north part of the Persian Gulf. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The results indicated that concentrations of Hg in the fish and crustacean were different among the species and tissues. Liver in fish and hepatopancreas in crustacean exhibited higher Hg concentration than the other tissues. The highest concentration of Hg was detected in Acanthopagrus latus liver (1.37 µg/g), followed by Labeo rohita (0.87 µg/g), Johnius belangerii (0.79 µg/g), and Barbus grypus (0.69 µg/g), respectively. Also the highest Hg concentrations were detected in shrimp species, Penaeus semisulcatus hepatopancreas (0.95 µg/g), followed by blue crab Portunus pelagicus (0.76 µg/g) and Metapenaues affinis (0.64 µg/g), respectively. The comparison indicated that benthic species were more contaminated than were other pelagic species. The results indicated that highest concentrations of Hg between different stations were detected in Musa estuary. The Hg concentration in all species were low than standards, expect in A. latus and P. semisulcatus collected from Musa estuary (S4). The variation in Hg levels among the species is likely to have resulted from metal bioavailability, changes in tissue composition, habitat,s and locations.

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Effects of pollutants from power plants in Kosova on genetic loads of Drosophila melanogaster

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

It has been reported by the Ministry of Environment in Kosova that particle emissions from one of the units of the coal-fired power plants (Kosova A) in Kastriot/Obiliq were exceeding the European standard by some 74 times. Besides the particle emission, there is also release of sulphur dioxide, mono-nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, organic compounds and heavy metals. In addition, there is also release of heavy metals and organic compounds from a nearby solid waste dumpsite. Together, they are considered to be responsible for the increased health problems of the population living in the vicinity.To study the genetic effects of these emissions we focused on the genetic load, that is, recessive mutations that affect the fitness of their carriers, of exposed wild living Drosophila melanogaster. The effects of ash from the dumpsite on the other hand were investigated upon feeding the ash with the nutrient medium. Our results revealed that the D. melanogaster population from the Kastriot/Obiliq area carries a high genetic load of 54.7%. Drosophila fed with the nutrient medium containing ash in a concentration of 1% carried a genetic load of 37.1%, whilst increasing concentrations (2% and 3% of ash) led to higher genetic loads of 68.7% and 67.4%, respectively.

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In vitro effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on oxidative stress and lipid metabolism in macrophages

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a major constituent of traffic-related air pollution and is also produced endogenously under conditions of oxygen-mediated stress. It has been shown to affect both oxidative stress and inflammation. However, its role in lipid metabolism has been neglected. Using short exposure times, the effect of CO on J774A.1 macrophage atherogenic functions was investigated up to 16 h after exposure. Exposure of macrophages was found to be pro-atherogenic as it significantly increased triglyceride mass, up to 60%, and decreased high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux, up to 27%. In contrast, paraoxonase 2 lactonase activity was increased, up to 65%, and cellular oxidative stress was attenuated by 29%, compared with the control cells. The above results on lipid metabolism may lead to arterial macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis.

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The occurrence of ochratoxin A in rice in six provinces of Iran

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Three hundred and eight samples of rice purchased from retail markets in six different provinces in Iran from March 2012 to January 2013 were surveyed for the presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The recovery percentages of OTA from spiked rice samples at concentrations of 5 and 10 ng/g were found to be 85.3% and 86.7%, respectively. Analytical results showed a 9.4% frequency of contamination from total analyzed rice samples with a mean OTA level of 3.60 ± 2.66 ng/g. Concentrations of OTA in positive samples ranged from 0.84 ng/g to 11.37 ng/g, and in 17.3% of contaminated rice samples the concentrations exceeded the maximum tolerance limit set by European regulations for OTA in cereals (5 ng/g). Based on the results of this study, the estimated daily intake of OTA in rice was 0.62 ng/kg body weight/day for Iranian consumers.

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Co-treatment of chlorpyrifos and lead induce serum lipid disorders in rats: Alleviation by taurine

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine (TA) on serum lipid profiles following chronic coadministration of chlorpyrifos (CP) and lead acetate (Pb) in male Wistar rats. Fifty rats randomly distributed into five groups served as subjects. Distilled water (DW) was given to DW group, while soya oil (SO; 1 mL kg–1) was given to SO group. The TA group was treated with TA (50 mg kg–1). The CP + Pb group was administered sequentially with CP (4.25 mg kg–1; 1/20th median lethal dose (LD50)) and Pb at 233.25 mg kg–1 (1/20th LD50), while the TA + CP + Pb group received TA (50 mg kg–1), CP (4.25 mg kg–1), and Pb (233.25 mg kg–1) sequentially. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanised, and the blood samples were collected at the termination of the study. Sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde, and also the activities of serum antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were analyzed. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and atherogenic index were calculated. The results showed that CP and Pb induced alterations in the serum lipid profiles and evoked oxidative stress. TA alleviated the disruptions in the serum lipid profiles of the rats partially by mitigating oxidative stress. It was concluded that TA may be used for prophylaxis against serum lipid disorders in animals that were constantly co-exposed to CP and Pb in the environment.

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Toxicological effects of carbosulfan in rats: Antioxidant, enzymological, biochemical, and hematological responses

Toxicology and Environmental Health - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 16:06

Carbosulfan is often used in agriculture for pest control on crops and for treatment against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. This study investigated the impact of carbosulfan on oxidative stress markers, antioxidant defense, hematological, biochemical, and enzymological parameters in Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered carbosulfan doses of 1.02 to 10.20 mg/kg body weight daily; after 96 h, blood samples were taken, and the liver, kidney, and brain were dissected out for study. Results indicate that carbosulfan significantly increased the levels of lipid peroxidation and suppressed the activity of reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and adenosine triphosphatase. A mixed trend was observed in the activity of superoxide dismutase, while an increase was observed in the levels of serum uric acid, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Hemoglobin and albumin levels decreased but no significant differences were observed in creatinine and bilirubin levels. Future studies should include a more detailed analysis of the effects of chronic carbosulfan exposure on these biomarkers to further assess the impact of the pesticide on mammalian models.

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Mortality among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate in the US polyurethane foam industry: Update and exposure-response analyses

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 09:15
Background

Mortality among 4,545 toluene diisocyante (TDI)-exposed workers was updated through 2011. The primary outcome of interest was lung cancer.

Methods

Life table analyses, including internal analyses by exposure duration and cumulative TDI exposure, were conducted.

Results

Compared with the US population, all cause and all cancer mortality was increased. Lung cancer mortality was increased but was not associated with exposure duration or cumulative TDI exposure. In post hoc analyses, lung cancer mortality was associated with employment duration in finishing jobs, but not in finishing jobs involving cutting polyurethane foam.

Conclusions

Dermal exposure, in contrast to inhalational exposure, to TDI is expected to be greater in finishing jobs and may play a role in the observed increase in lung cancer mortality. Limitations include the lack of smoking data, uncertainty in the exposure estimates, and exposure estimates that reflected inhalational exposure only. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:630–643, 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA

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Metabolic outcomes of workers according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations in Korea

American Journal of Industrial Medicine - Mon, 06/27/2016 - 09:15
Background

Occupation influences the risk for developing chronic metabolic diseases.

Methods

We compared the prevalence of MetS by International Standard Classification of Occupations using the nationally representative data in Korea (KNHANES). We enrolled 16,763 workers (9,175 males; 7,588 females) who had measurements for the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria III and other variables. OR and 95%CIs for MetS and its components were estimated according to occupation using the multiple logistic regression models.

Results

The occupational groups with the highest age-standardized prevalence of MetS were lower skilled white-collar men (31.1 ± 2.4%) and green-collar women (24.2 ± 2.9%). Compared with the unskilled male blue-collar group, which had the lowest prevalence of MetS, the OR (95%CIs) of MetS in men were 1.77 (1.45–2.15) in higher skilled white-collar, 1.82 (1.47–2.26) in lower-skilled white-collar, 1.63 (1.32–2.01) in pink-collar and 1.37 (1.13–1.66) in skilled blue-collar workers in final logistic regression model.

Conclusions

MetS and its components vary by occupational category and gender in ways that may guide health interventions. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:685–694, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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